Cases of leptospirosis in Indonesia increased dramatically in 2018 by 895 cases with 148 death cases due to leptospirosis in 2018. Risk factors were found in more than half of leptospirosis events including environmental conditions, the presence of rodents, waste water disposal, waste disposal facilities, history of contact with rats, presence of rivers, and history of flooding. Previous research has reported the finding of mice containing Leptospira in post-flood areas in Indonesia. Therefore this study aimed to determine the relationship of environmental conditions with the presence of Leptospira bacteria in rats in flood-prone areas. This research is an analytic study with cross sectional approach. Data obtained by observing the type of rat, the process of surgery and taking rats, rats calculation of success traps and observation of environmental conditions. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test was carried out in the Microbiology Laboratory of Hasanuddin University Hospital. Statistical tests with fisher exact were used to determine the relationship of environmental conditions with the presence of Leptospira bacteria in rats. The results of this study found 100% Mus musculus, 53.3% Rattus norvegicus, 22.2% Rattus tanezumi infected with Leptospira bacteria. The results showed the presence of sewers with stagnant water (0,000), presence of standing water other than sewers (0,026), presence of sewage waste (0,005), presence of waste other than ditches (0,007), smell of rat urine (0,049) and pH of stagnant water the optimum (0.001) with a p-value < 0,05. We recommend to the Paccerakkang inhabitants who reside in flood-prone areas, to always maintain environmental conditions such as cleaning the environment suspected of being a habitat for rats.
Original Research Article
July 30, 2020
A Review of China-India Geopolitical Relations in the Context of Belt and Road Initiative (BRI)
Akkas Ahamed, Md. Sayedur Rahman
Page Numbers : 368-376
DOI : 10.36348/sjef.2020.v04i07.009
Both China and India are two neighboring nations sharing long borders. China is a North East Asian country, and India is a South Asian country bordering with Bangladesh, Pakistan, Nepal, Bhutan and Myanmar. China shares borders with South Asia, South East Asia, North East Asia, Central Asia, West Asia and Russian Federation. Geopolitically and geo-strategically it is located in a center point. According to its size of population and by GDP purchasing power parity (PPP), it has been turned into as number one country in the World. China’s economy is rapidly growing, and it will emerge as a global super power within very short time. However, India is a large country in the context of both geographical size and population. It is the second largest country in world taking into account of its size of population. It is a rising economy, and it has been turned into third largest economy by GDP purchasing power parity (PPP). In this study, some important geopolitical issues of Sino-Indian relations have been discussed in the context of BRI. Friendly relations between China and India are very crucial to ensure peace, security, stability, connectivity and, of course, economic development in the entire region. The main objective of this study is to provide some policy recommendations to improve the relations between China and India. The study is based on secondary data with some field level data which were collected through focus group discussions and observation.
Original Research Article
July 28, 2020
The Effect of Educational Interventions on Knowledge, Attitude and Practices of Mothers Regarding Febrile Convulsions in Children
Febrile convulsion (FC) is one of the most common problems of children under five years of age. This fear provoking condition creates anxiety among parents particularly in mothers which may lead to mismanagement. The study aims to determine the impact of educational interventions on maternal knowledge, attitude & practices regarding febrile convulsions before and after intervention. Study Design was Quasi-experimental (pre-posttest) and Setting was department of pediatrics, Jinnah hospital & Children hospital Lahore. Methodology: 100 mothers having children with febrile convulsions were selected by using purposive sampling technique for the period May to October, 2019. On the first day pretest was conducted in which knowledge, attitude and practices on febrile convulsions was assessed. After pretest they were intervened with 01 week educational sessions, each session was of 01 hour. Posttest was conducted after 01 week. Data was collected by using a validated and reliable questionnaire before and after intervention. Analysis was done through statistical package for the social science (SPSS) version 20.0.Result: mean, ± SD were given for quantitative variable while frequencies, percentages were given for qualitative variables. T-test was applied to compare pre & post effect of educational intervention on maternal knowledge, attitude & practices of FC. P-value of ≤ 0.05 was considered significant. The post-test results revealed a significant increase in mother's knowledge (P = < 0.002), attitude (P = <0.01) and practice (P =< 0.04) of febrile convulsion. This study suggested that educational interventions worked efficiently in improving mother's knowledge, attitude and practice of FC.
Original Research Article
July 27, 2020
Analysis of Investment Feasibility of 25mw Power Plant Development Project in Paper Factory in Karawang in Financial Aspects, Technology and Environmental
Rosalendro Eddy Nugroho, Ihsan Maulana
Page Numbers : 438-447
DOI : 10.36348/sjbms.2020.v05i07.008
Electrical energy is a source of energy needed by industry. This study aims to analyze the feasibility of investing in the construction of a pulp and paper industry power plant in Karawang. Research in terms of aspects of technology, environmental impacts are compared in the application of old technology and new technology. Financial aspects with the capital budgeting method. From the results of studies in the aspects of Technology 29.66 Tons / h Coal can produce 25 MW of electricity and supply steam for paper production. While the old Boiler 28.6 Ton / h only supplies steam for paper production, so that the Power Plant Project is more efficient than production costs and multifunctional technology. From an environmental aspect the technology used for fly ash is using ESP. ESP can not only reduce Sox, Nox, Total Particulate can also eliminate HG and fine dust so that it is safe for the environment and financial aspects of calculations with a payback period showing 3.62 years or 3 years 7 1/2 months, by using a Discounted payback return period is 4.21 Year or 4 years 2.5 months, using a Net Present Value (NPV) of $ 32,513,596.83, using the Internal Rate of Return (IRR) method is 36.88%, and using the Profitability Index (PI) method is 2.29. After comparing with the eligibility criteria, it can be concluded that this project is feasible to be implemented.
July 26, 2020
An Immense Detail of miRNA Role in Gene Regulation and Their Expression on Functional Bases in Various Crops
Junaid Ali, Muhammad Umer Khan, Hasham Feroz Ghuman, Fahad Majeed, Bebagar, Ahmed Khan, Muhammad Uzair, Ijaz Ahmed, Muhammad Ghani
Page Numbers : 122-132
DOI : 10.36348/sjls.2020.v05i07.002
Crops are very important in order to accommodate world population for food as well as industrial purposes. MiRNA (micro-RNA) have been considered as an important and crucial factor for manipulation of crops to make them more productive and resistant against harsh environmental stressed conditions. Now, these non-coding special sequences have been used successfully for gene-expression and regulation such as gene integration, slicing, signal transduction, pre and post translational modification, boost up metabolic pathways, enhancement of crop growth and developments and much more traits which is significant contribution in genetic engineering technologies for crop modifications. Genomic expression factors have been modulated through unique-miRNAs sequence which takes up toward the next generation specific targets that would have been adapted under biotechnological mechanisms and then these technologies could be used for improving the agronomic traits of various crops further down collection of high productive results. Significant strategies have pointed out to overcome the drawbacks during crop-manipulation. In this review, work for diversified and recently identified sequences of micro-RNA is studied; and production of valuable crops in order to have better agronomic properties to fulfill the requirements of food and industry with significant sustainability under stressed conditions. Genetic regulation as well as expression through miRNAs in genetic engineering will facilitate better for crop modification with quality and would be considered as positive step toward improving the economy of country.
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